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Statistics relating to Migrant Smuggling in Australia
Despite the prominence of the topic of migrant smuggling in public and political debates in Australia, comprehensive and accurate data on this issue is not readily available. In short, the number of persons smuggled to Australia is not known – or at least not publicly documented. This website identifies and reflects on the available statistics relating to migrant smuggling in Australia.
- Unauthorised Boat Arrivals since 1999
- Unauthorised Air Arrivals since 1999
- Implications, Further Working Group Research
Until 2005, the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) provided information pertaining to the number and circumstances of unauthorised arrivals by air and boat each year. Relevant publications setting out this information have, however, either been discontinued or not updated, and several ‘Fact Sheets’ and other data collections have since been removed, classified, or have not been updated for many years. A limited amount of information on unauthorised arrivals into Australia can be found in other government sources, but many of these are not updated regularly and are often not comprehensive.
Due to the lack of current, official, open-source information available post-2005, any outline and analysis of the current levels of migrant smuggling to Australia remains speculative. The data shown on this website attempts to identify the number of unauthorised boat and air arrivals into Australia over the last decade using a combination of sources. These figures may be indicative of the levels of migrant smuggling into this country, but it must be noted that these figures do not represent the actual number of smuggled migrants. This is because some unauthorised arrivals by boat may have occurred without the involvement of migrant smugglers and instances of migrant smuggling by air are very infrequently detected.
The table below indicates the number of unauthorised boat arrivals in each calendar year since 1999. The data is presented by the number of boats as well as by the total number of people (excluding crew) that arrived by boat in a given year. The number of crew that arrived by boat is only available for the years 2009-2013. The data used in this table is drawn directly from a study into boat arrivals into Australia since 1976, conducted by Janet Phillips and Harriet Spinks. For the years 1999-2008 Philips & Spinks relied on ‘DIAC advice provided to the Parliamentary Library on 22 June 2009’ and for the years 2009-2011 the authors cite ‘Customs and Border Protection advice provided to the Parliamentary Library on 18 January 2012’. To date, this remains the most reliable source of data relating to unauthorised boat arrivals into Australia.
|Calender year||Number of boats||Number of people (excludes crew)||Number of crew|
The following figure reflects the number of refused entries at Australian airports each financial year since 1999. This data combines refusal of entry on grounds of document fraud, ‘mala fide visa holders’, and other reasons. ‘Mala fides visa holders’ refers to persons who, on arrival in Australia, are found not to intend to abide by the visa conditions, such as contravening work condition requirements or where the reason for the grant of visa no longer exists. ‘Other reasons’ include refusal on the basis of character grounds or health checks. Of most relevance to the subject of migrant smuggling are refusals on the basis of document fraud, though not all instances of document fraud are necessarily linked to migrant smuggling.
The data used for the table below was primarily found in the Annual Reports by DIAC (formerly DIMIA). No data was available for the years 2000–2003 in these reports. The data used for this period was obtained from figures published by the Refugee Council of Australia.
|Financial year||Number of unauthorised air arrivals|
As mentioned earlier, the information displayed on this website serves merely to indicate the level of unauthorised arrivals into Australia. Contrary to some statements, these numbers do not reflect the true level of migrant smuggling into this country.
The absence of any comprehensive data on the scale and spread of migrant smuggling has a direct impact on the ability of those charged with enforcing relevant laws. If the scale and nature of the problem is not known, it is unlikely that the appropriate measures and resources can be allocated to prevent and suppress it. Without accurate information about migrant smuggling, prevention strategies cannot be identified, and suppression activities are rendered useless because insufficient information will not lead to effective prosecution of offenders.
Crime statistics generally only count those criminal offences that come to the attention of the police or other law enforcement agencies. However, for a variety of reasons, smuggled migrants and witnesses of migrant smuggling may not report offences to the authorities. The reporting rate, as it is usually referred to, may be affected by a number of factors, including access to law enforcement agencies, confidence (or lack thereof) in the police, et cetera. The difference between how much crime actually occurs and how much crime is reported to or discovered by the authorities is usually referred to as the ‘dark figure of crime’. Crime statistics are therefore a very imperfect measure of the level of migrant smuggling.
Data collection about the scale and patterns of migrant smuggling is important for evaluating the impact and efficiency of policy, legislation, and enforcement programs, and for providing feedback to policy makers and legislators. Without defensible and realistic baseline data, claims concerning the operation and impact of anti-migrant smuggling strategies cannot be verified, and thus the credibility and commitment of government programs are left subject to question.
On the other hand, if collected and reported consistently, such information makes it possible to review investigation and prosecution processes and identify potential weaknesses in the criminal justice system that cause cases to collapse. The collection of data should also be followed by data analysis in order to identify and understand trends and patterns of migrant smuggling. Many jurisdictions also include information about offenders, victims (if any), harm or damage caused, and location of the offence in their data collections.
Although media attention and public debate surrounding the issue of migrant smuggling has intensified again since 2008, the quantity and quality of publicly accessible data has decreased considerably in recent years. The Australian Government cites concerns over national security as the main justification to withdraw a significant level of information about migrant smuggling from the public realm or otherwise withhold more detailed statistics. Whilst recognising the importance of national security, it is imperative that the Government provide more accurate information on the topic of migrant smuggling in order to inform public debate and allow better policy making.
In 2011, the UQ Migrant Smuggling Working Group conducted further research to identify and analyse the levels of migrant smuggling in Australia more accurately. This involved a variety of avenues of inquiry, including research into the number of investigations, prosecutions and convictions of migrant smugglers, figures reported in the media, and lodging Freedom of Information requests with the relevant government departments. Whilst the information and data gathered did not allow for solid conclusions on the number or source countries of persons smuggled to Australia, a number of important observations were made.
Following the implementation of the so-called Pacific Solution (2001-2007), which saw a drastic decrease in unauthorised arrivals by boat, the information documented on the topics of irregular migration and migrant smuggling became more extensive. It may be speculated that this was to evidence the alleged effectiveness of the Government’s policy of detaining Australia-bound asylum seekers in Nauru and Papua New Guinea and attempts to turn some vessels back to Indonesia. These claims, which are continued to be made by leaders of the Liberal Party will be examined in a research project conducted by the Working Group in 2012.
In 2012-14, the Working Group is examining the impact of other policy initiatives on the levels of migrant smuggling in Australia. This includes suggestions to ‘turn around’ migrant smuggling vessels – a measure that was practiced briefly in late 2001 and that has been advocated by the Liberal-National parties in recent years. The (potential) effect of the proposal to return some smuggled migrants to Malaysia and of the re-introduction of offshore detention in August 2012 will also be analysed by the Migrant Smuggling Working Group.
|||See, Janet Phillips and Harriet Spinks, Background Note: Boat arrivals in Australia since 1976 (2013) Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library <http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BN/2012-2013/BoatArrivals>.|
|||DIAC, Annual Report 2011-12 (2012) 153; Refugee Council of Australia, Australia’s Refugee Program – Facts + Stats (2008) <http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/arp/stats-02.html>, citing DIMIA, Population Flows 2000 Edition (2001) 56; DIMIA, Population Flows 2001 Edition (2002) 57; DIMIA, Population Flows: Immigration Aspects 2002-2003 Edition (2003) 73.|
|||See further, UNODC, International Framework for Action to Implement the Smuggling of Migrants Protocol (2012) 8–9.|